Soon the earth crusted and clouds of dust surrounded all moving objects. Midway through June, a few storm clouds teased the country but dropped very little rain.
Early years[ edit ] MacLeish was born in Glencoe, Illinois. He grew up on an estate bordering Lake Michigan. He attended the Hotchkiss School from to He fought at the Second Battle of the Marne. He returned to America in From to he worked as a writer and editor for Henry Luce 's Fortune magazine during which he also became increasingly politically active, especially with anti-fascist causes.
By the s, he considered Capitalism to be "symbolically dead" and wrote the verse play Panic in response. Both MacLeish and Crosby had overturned the normal expectations of society, rejecting conventional careers in the legal and banking fields.
Crosby published MacLeish's long poem Einstein in a deluxe edition of copies that sold quickly. The book was influential on Steinbeck in writing The Grapes of Wrath. Librarian of Congress[ edit ] American Libraries has called MacLeish "one of the hundred most influential figures in librarianship during the 20th century" in the United States.
Roosevelt 's nomination of MacLeish was a controversial and highly political maneuver fraught with several challenges. MacLeish sought support from expected places such as the president of Harvard, MacLeish's current place of work, but found none. It was support from unexpected places, such as M.
Calling to mind differences with the party he had over the years, MacLeish avowed that, "no one would be more shocked to learn I am a Communist than the Communists themselves.
With President Roosevelt's support and Senator Barkley's skillful defense in the United States Senatevictory in a roll call vote with sixty-three Senators voting in favor of MacLeish's appointment was achieved. According to Roosevelt, the pay levels were too low and many people would need to be removed.
At the meeting, Putnam relayed his intention to continue working at the Library, that he would be given the title of Librarian Emeritus and that his office would be down the hall from MacLeish's. This meeting further crystallized for MacLeish that as Librarian of Congress, he would be "an unpopular newcomer, disturbing the status quo.
In OctoberMacLeish described that he did not set out to reorganize the library, rather "…one problem or another demanded action, and each problem solved led on to another that needed attention.
He then set about setting up various committees on various projects including: The committees alerted MacLeish to various problems throughout the library. Putnam was conspicuously not invited to attend these meetings, resulting in the Librarian Emeritus' feelings being "mortally hurt", but, according to MacLeish, it was necessary to exclude Putnam, otherwise, "he would have been sitting there listening to talk about himself which he would take personally.
A report in Decemberfound that over one-quarter of the library's collection had not yet been cataloged. MacLeish solved the problem of acquisitions and cataloging through establishing another committee instructed to seek advice from specialists outside of the Library of Congress.
The committee found many subject areas of the library to be adequate and many other areas to be, surprisingly, inadequately provided for. A set of general principles on acquisitions was then developed to ensure that, though it was impossible to collect everything, the Library of Congress would acquire the bare minimum of canons to meet its mission.
These principles included acquiring all materials necessary to members of Congress and government officers, all materials expressing and recording the life and achievements of the people of the United States, and materials of other societies past and present which are of the most immediate concern to the peoples of the United States.
Leading scholars in library science were assigned a committee to analyze the library's managerial structure.
The committee issued a report a mere two months after it was formed, in Aprilstating that a major restructuring was necessary.
This was no surprise to MacLeish, who had thirty-five divisions under him. He divided the library's functions into three departments: All existing divisions were then assigned as appropriate. Within a year, MacLeish had completely restructured the Library of Congress, making it work more efficiently and aligning the library to "report on the mystery of things.
Perhaps his greatest display of public advocacy was requesting a budget increase of over a million dollars in his March budget proposal to the United States Congress. Langerwho, with the assistance of the American Council of Learned Societies and Librarian of Congress Archibald MacLeish, set out immediately to recruit a professional staff drawn from across the social sciences.
These jobs were heavily involved with propaganda, which was well-suited to MacLeish's talents; he had written quite a bit of politically motivated work in the previous decade. After this, he retired from public service and returned to academia. Return to writing[ edit ] Despite a long history of debate over the merits of MarxismMacLeish came under fire from anti-communists in the s and s, including J.The Grapes of Wrath is an American realist novel written by John Steinbeck and published in The book won the National Book Award  and Pulitzer Prize  for fiction, and it was cited prominently when Steinbeck was awarded the Nobel Prize in Publisher: The Viking Press-James Lloyd.
John Ford and Allan Dwan John Ford began directing films in the 's. So did another prolific Hollywood director, Allan Dwan.A number of running elements in .
To summarize my analysis of The Grapes of Wrath, Steinbeck has, in writing this classic novel, created a moving and quite well written piece of art. The story is very descriptive, and Steinbeck‟s fascinating writing techniques give the book a distinct feel.
A short John Steinbeck biography describes John Steinbeck's life, times, and work. Also explains the historical and literary context that influenced The Grapes of Wrath. In the roads where the teams moved, where the wheels milled the ground and the hooves of the horses beat the ground, the dirt crust broke and the dust formed.
John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath () is one of the most widely read American novels. Much has been written about the book, yet a number of recent critics have challenged its merits and questioned its place in the canon.