In Chinese, most characters are associated with a single Chinese sound, though there are distinct literary and colloquial readings.
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Early history[ edit ] A system akin to the Bessemer process has existed since the 11th century in East Asia. Wertime have described the method as a predecessor to the Bessemer process of making steel.
In Benjamin Huntsman developed the crucible technique for steel manufacture, at his workshop in the district of Handsworth in Sheffield. This process had an enormous impact on the quantity and quality of steel production, but it was unrelated to the Bessemer-type process employing decarburization.
Johan Albrecht de Mandelslo described the Japanese use of the Bessemer process. He writes, "They have, among others, particular invention for the melting of iron, without the using of fire, casting it into a tun done about on the inside without about half a foot of earth, where they keep it with continual blowing, take it out by ladles full, to give it what form they please.
Wagner believes that the Japanese process may have been similar to the Bessemer process, but cautions that alternative explanations are also plausible.
In the early s, the American inventor William Kelly experimented with a method similar to the Bessemer process. Wagner writes that Kelly may have been inspired by techniques introduced by Chinese ironworkers hired by Kelly in He wrote that "I have reason to believe my discovery was known in England three or four years ago, as a number of English puddlers visited this place to see my new process.
Several of them have since returned to England and may have spoken of my invention there. During the outbreak of the Crimean Warmany English industrialists and inventors became interested in military technology.
According to Bessemer, his invention was inspired by a conversation with Napoleon III in pertaining to the steel required for better artillery.
Bessemer claimed that it "was the spark which kindled one of the greatest revolutions that the present century had to record, for during my solitary ride in a cab that night from Vincennes to Paris, I made up my mind to try what I could to improve the quality of iron in the manufacture of guns.
Starting in January he began working on a way to produce steel in the massive quantities required for artillery and by October he filed his first patent related to the Bessemer process.
He patented the method a year later in By this method he hoped to cause the new process to gain in standing and market share. However, despite spending tens of thousands of pounds on experiments, he could not find the answer.
In the end Bessemer set up his own steel company because he knew how to do it, even though he could not convey it to his patent users. His method was to first burn off, as far as possible, all the impurities and carbon, then reintroduce carbon and manganese by adding an exact amount of spiegeleisen.
This had the effect of improving the quality of the finished product, increasing its malleability —its ability to withstand rolling and forging at high temperatures and making it more suitable for a vast array of uses. Bessemer earned over 5 million dollars in royalties from the patents.
They are not included in his list of the four to whom he refunded the license fees.
However, they subsequently rescinded their license in in return for the opportunity to invest in a partnership with Bessemer and others. This partnership began to manufacture steel in Sheffield frominitially using imported charcoal pig iron from Sweden. This was the first commercial production.
His A Treatise on Ordnance and Armor is an important work on contemporary weapons manufacturing and steel-making practices.
Winslow and John Augustus Griswoldwho asked him to return to the United Kingdom and negotiate with the Bank of England on their behalf. The Troy factory attracted the attention of the Pennsylvania Railroadwhich wanted to use the new process to manufacture steel rail.The Japanese may have made use of a Bessemer-type process, which was observed by European travelers in the 17th century.
The adventurer Johan Albrecht de Mandelslo describes the process in a book published in English in He writes, "They have, among others, particular invention for the melting of iron, without the using of fire, casting it into a tun done about on the inside without about.
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Kanji to Romaji converter. This Japanese Keyboard enables you to easily type Japanese online without installing Japanese blog-mmorpg.com can use your computer keyboard or mouse to type Japanese letters (Kanji, Hiragana, and Katakana) with this online keyboard. Kanji (漢字; listen) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system.
They are used alongside the Japanese syllabic scripts hiragana and blog-mmorpg.com Japanese term kanji for the Chinese characters literally means "Han characters". It is written with the same characters in the Chinese language to refer to the character writing .