Order now Even before Thorndike established the law of effect, a Russian scientist named Ivan Pavlov conditioned several dogs to salivate to the sound of a ringing bell. Skinner made a significant discovery for modern behaviorism that led to the modern practice of organizational behavior modification. Using rats and pigeons in controlled environments, his studies found that the consequences of behavior were influential in determining, predicting and controlling that behavior. Skinner highlighted the important distinction between respondent conditioning Pavlovian S-R connection where the stimuli elicit the behavior and operant conditioning the organism operates on the environment in order to obtain the desired consequence, or the R-S connection where the behavior is a function of the consequence.
Piaget believed that children play an active role in the growth of intelligence. Through his work, Piaget showed that children think in considerably different ways than adults do and as such he saw cognitive development as a progressive reorganization of mental processes resulting from maturation and experience To explain this theory, Piaget used the concept of stages to describe his development as a sequence of the four following stages: There are three elements however to understanding his theory of cognitive development.
They are schema, the fours process that enable transition from on stage to another, and finally the four stages themselves. He began his studies by making naturalistic observations. Piaget made careful, detailed observations of children, typically his own children or their friends, from these he wrote diary descriptions charting their development.
He also conducted clinical interviews and observations of older children who were able to understand questions and hold conversations McLeod Based off these observation Piaget laid the ground work for his theories the behaviorism approach essay writer cognitive development starting with the schema.
A schema can be thought of as a unit of knowledge, relating to one aspect of the world including objects, actions, and abstract theoretical concepts ICELS.
They are used to understand and to respond to situations and are stored and applied when needed. A child is considered to be in a state of equilibrium or in a state of cognitive balance when she or he is capable of explaining what he or she is perceiving schema at the time ICELS.
The processes that form the building blocks of a schema are assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation and accommodation are two of the four processes that enable the transition from one cognitive stage to another. Assimilation is the process of interpreting experiences in terms of schema whereas accommodation is the process of adjusting schema based on new information or new experiences.
For example, a child may see a robin flying and thus conclude that all birds fly assimilationhowever upon learning a chicken cannot fly said child would have to adjust their existing schema of birds to accommodate chickens accommodation.
The other two of the four processes that enable the transition from one cognitive stage to another are equilibrium and disequilibrium. Equilibration is said to be the force which moves development along. However, a state of disequilibrium occurs when new information cannot be fitted into existing schemas Piagetp.
Thus the accommodation comes into play in order to restore a state of equilibrium. Together, assimilation and accommodation are processes of adjustment to changes in the environment and are defined as adaptation, the continuous process of using the environment to learn ICELS.
And, according to Piaget, adaptation is the most important principle of human functioning. With these basic elements of cognitive learning established Piaget then began to establish his four stages of cognitive development.
The first being the sensory — motor stage. This stage is considered to extend from birth to approximately age two. During this stage senses, reflexes, and motor abilities develop rapidly.
During the early stages, infants are only aware of what is immediately in front of them. They focus on what they see, what they are doing, and physical interactions with their immediate environment.
Toward the end of the sensory-motor stage, the ability to form primitive mental images develops as the infant acquires object permanence ICELS. Object permanence is the understanding that objects have a continued existence when they disappear from view.
Thus in this stage behavior is organized around its sensory or motor effects culminates in attaining the concept of object permanence. The next stage is the preoperational stage. This stage extend from ages 2 to 7 and during this stage the child is not yet able to think logically.
With the acquisition of language, the child is able to represent the world through mental images and symbols, but in this stage, these symbols depend on his own perception and his intuition Piagetp. Preoperational children are completely egocentric. Although they begin to take greater interest in objects and people around them, they see these things from only their point of view.
This also has been said to be the stage of curiosity. Preoperational children are always questioning and investigating new things and since they know the world only from their very limited point of view they make up explanations for things they cannot explain ICELS.
The preoperational stage is therefore characterized by egocentric thought and the inability for children to adopted alternative viewpoints. The third stage is the concrete operational stage.
This stage extends from ages 7 to 11 and it is during this stage that a child is able to perform mental operations. Piaget defines a mental operation as an interiorized action, an action performed in the mind which permits the child to think about physical actions that he or she previously performed Piagetp.
At this time children demonstrate logical, concrete reasoning and their thinking becomes less egocentric as they are increasingly aware of external events. The primary characteristic of concrete operational thought is its reversibility; the child can mentally reverse the direction of his or her thought Piagetp.ADVANCED WRITING.
IN ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE A Corpus-Based Study of Processes and Products Horvath Jozsef Lingua Franca Csoport ADVANCED WRITING IN ENGLISH.
Piaget is a Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemological studies with children. Piaget believed that children play an active role in the growth of intelligence.
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